Patients on testosterone replacement therapy should be monitored to ensure that testosterone levels are within normal levels. The physician prescribing testosterone replacement should evaluate any changes in the clinical symptoms and signs of testosterone deficiency and should assess for other concerns, such as acne and increase in breast size and tenderness. Serum testosterone levels should be checked between 5 to 7 hours after application of a transdermal or sublingual delivery systems.
A prostate specific antigen (PSA) checked in all men before initiating treatment. These should be repeated at approximately three to six months, and then annually in men >40 years of age. A confirmed increase in PSA >2 ng/mL, or a total PSA >4.0 ng/mL requires urologic evaluation. The hematocrit level should also be checked at baseline, at three to six months, and then annually. A hematocrit >55% warrants evaluation for hypoxia and sleep apnea and/or a reduction in the dose of testosterone therapy. Measurement of bone mineral density of the lumbar spine and/or the femoral necks at one year may be considered in hypogonadal men with osteopenia.